Essay on bullying with nurses

Introduction

a. Rationale for topic selection is introduced, reflecting creativity and personal philosophy in the topic of study. Without the use of I

b. Explains how project is of significance to the nursing profession.

c. Explains how this project will enhance knowledge of a particular aspect of the interaction of persons with their environment along the health-illness continuum.

d. Reflects one’s personal philosophy of nursing that is based on needs of individuals, families, groups, and community. This is found in the log a, b, c should be a paragraph Review of the Literature

a. Expands upon review of literature proposed in NURS 467.

b. Analyzes current nursing and related-disciplines literature to support the topic of study.

c. Evaluates evidence-based literature in nursing and related-disciplines to answer the question: What are the current evidence-based findings related to the topic of study?

d. Incorporates a theoretical framework, as appropriate, to the topic of study. The theoretical framework may be a nursing theory or a theory from a related discipline.

e. Synthesizes literature to provide a summary of best evidence related to topic of study. Topic is nurse bullying. Continue or use some information from Senior seminar implementation Senior Seminar 1: Proposal Topic: Nurse-to-Nurse Bullying in the Work Environment Senior Seminar 1: Proposal Introduction: Workplace bullying is one the current emerging issues in organizations worldwide. It generally refers to an offensive and insulting behavior such as malicious abuse of power by an individual or a group of individuals against another person(s) thus making the recipient upset, feeling humiliated, threatened and vulnerable (Einarsen et al, 2004). This undermines ones personal self-confidence, which may result into in a variety of suffering due to stress. It can either be horizontal hostility, lateral violence inactivity, or aggression within the workplace. These behaviors may include criticizing, intimidation, blaming, fighting among co-workers, refusing to lend assistance, public humiliation, withholding behavior, and undermining the efforts of targeted individuals, (Becher, 2012, p. 210). The national surveys approximate that the number of cases of nurses being bullied ranges from 30% to about 85 % (Cleary et al, 2010, p.332). This is an indication that there is a widespread case of nurse bullying. This study also reveals that about 90% of these cases are in form of horizontal hostility among the fellow nurses in the same level (Cleary et al, 2010, p.332). Staff nurses reported bullying activity among nurses. This is an indication that nurse bullying has become a serious problem within health organizations. This problem needs to be addressed as it may result in adverse problems within the organization affecting both the staff members and patients due to poor treatment services. As some nurses are subjected to bullying, their work efficiency reduces and may result in many problems such as increase in operation costs within the organization due to wastage of resources and the nurses bullied might transfer the same to patients (Dellasega, 2009, p.52). Review of the literature: Nurse bullying is one of the major problems affecting the nursing institutions globally. According to Hutchinson (2010), nurses are considered a high-risk occupational group for exposure to workplace violence and aggression. Among nurses, the prevalence of bullying is reported to be widespread with estimates suggesting 80% of nurses’ experience bullying at some point in their working lives. However, no changes in the bullying problem occurred and today the problem is pervasive. Bullying occurs in different levels in an organization. It may be horizontal hostility and aggressive behavior. Horizontal hostility takes place whereby one is the staff nurse is bullying another staff nurse. While aggressive behavior may take place when a senior staff bullies junior nurses, (Cleary et al, 2010). New graduate nurses experiencing hostile violence reported a higher level of absenteeism and considered leaving the profession altogether (Becher, 2012). Recent studies reported that the most common bullying behaviors among nurses were: being allocated an unmanageable workload, being ignored or excluded, having rumors spread about you, being ordered to carry out work below your competence level, having your professional opinion ignored, having information relevant to your work withheld, being given impossible targets or deadlines, being humiliated or ridiculed about your work. Other examples of bullying behaviors include: over checking, the silent treatment, belittling, criticism, scapegoating, sabotaging, and being blamed for things that are not within your control, (Cleary, 2010). Cleary et al (2010,p.334) argue that there are tremendous impacts related to nurse bullying and the nurse’s morale decreases due to bullying thus affecting the final results in the work place. Nurse bullying affects the nurses themselves, the organization, society, and finally the patients. These consequences are both psychological and physiological on all the parties affected. Bullying destroys self-image and confidence of the nurses being bullied. An individual due to lack of self-confidence feels humiliated and one’s productivity goes down hence may end up resigning the job due to need of peace of mind. Similarly, this erodes nurse’s professional competence resulting into nurse’s absenteeism in work places and may also lead to mental health problems as one is stressed up, (Cleary et al, 2010). According to Becher (2012), horizontal violence has special implications for student and newly graduated nurses, who have many questions and require professional development to reach their full potential. New graduate nurses experiencing hostile violence may have difficulty attaining success due to an environment of continual conflict. Moreover, literature indicates that bullying in nursing results in an unfavorable working environment. As the nurses are subjected to various forms of bullying, they work under pressure. One is not able to concentrate on his or her work. The working environment is hostile hence nurses are unable to produce quality services in their departments, (Dellasega, 2009). The working environment in such a situation is toxic for the nurses to operate smoothly as one faces discrimination from his or her co-workers. Unfavorable environment affects the nurses as their productivity decreases. Patients in turn suffer due to poor services from the nurses as their productivity goes down. Furthermore bullying of nurses may lead to increased costs in an organization. Cost to increase as some nurses may resign from their jobs. It therefore means the organization has to employ new employs to replace those who have resigned, (Dellasega, 2009). Cost raises as the organization recruits new employees who need to be trained. Training requires money to pay the training personnel, which adds to the expenses of the organization. Cost increase may also result as the patients receive services of low quality hence their needs are not satisfied they therefore end up looking for other healthcare where they can get quality services. There are various programs to protect nurses from bullying and to prepare nursing students about the problem. To effectively prevent these negative impacts of bullying a number of steps can be followed to ensure healthy environment for working. The literature review suggests a number of ways, which can be used to fight bullying in the nursing departments. There are prevention methods that intend to educate people on the negative impacts of nurse bullying, implement zero tolerance policies on those who bully nurses, and promoting acceptable professional codes of conduct among the nurses, (Funnell et al, 2008). Educating both nurses and their managers plays an important role in the prevention of nurse bullying. The managers should be educated to create awareness of the signs of a person who is being bullied. These signs include expression of wish to resign and anxiety. Through this the managers can identify signs of nurse bullying early before the problem intensifies. Nurses can be educated to create awareness of their rights. If nurses are taught about their rights and different methods of bullying, they will be able to handle the situation professionally. They will be able to notice any bullying and report to the relevant authorities thus minimizing the future impacts. More so, all the nurses should be taught about provisions, which define the expected code of ethics for all the nurses in the United States, (Funnell et al, 2008). This provision provides that nurses should have compassionate, caring relationships with their fellow nurses, and should maintain fair treatment of other nurses. This provision thus provides all the nurses with the professional code of ethics to interact with others. Through these, one will be aware of the negative implications of violating the rights of the nurses. Lastly, nurse bullying can be curbed by implementing strict policies, which do not tolerate with those who violate the rights of others in workplace of nurse, (Funnell et al, 2008). When rules to protect the oppressed nurses are implemented managers and other nurses who have the tendency of bullying or discriminating others will not be able engage themselves in such practices. Description of project: The goal of this project is to raise awareness and help nurses cope with nurse-to-nurse bullying within Bayonne Medical Center. Flyers will be given to the nurses with the information about the three meetings that will be held in my house regarding nurse bullying. The first meeting will be made to raise awareness of bullying while the nurses vent about their experiences. When dealing with bullies, the target needs to feel safe and supported in speaking out. A lack of support or failure to acknowledge or address the behavior can be devastating to the victim (Cleary et al, 2010). The next meeting will consist of how bullying affects nurses. International data shows that frequent outcomes for targets of bullying are: headaches, stress, irritability, anxiety, sleep disturbance, excessive worry, impaired social skills, depression, fatigue, loss of concentration, helplessness, psychosomatic complaints, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Cleary et al,2010,). The third meeting will be made to teach nurses how to cope with bullying Project goals and outcomes: These objectives of the project are as follows: 1. Discuss the problems associated with bullying in the nursing arena 2. Create a series of workshops to work on bullying issues in the work place 3. Implement multiple workshops 4. Analyze the results 5. Identify resources for nurses Target Population Objectives / Outcomes: • Identify bullying situation • Discuss feelings related to bullying • Apply strategies to new bullying situations • Discuss resources for assistance Methodology: 1. Thorough review of the literature regarding the topic of Nurse to Nurse Bullying in the Work Environment 2. Thorough research regarding managing meetings 3. Analysis of nurse bullying in the work environment 4. Inform nursing staff regarding workshops 5. Facilitate three workshops outside of the hospital on nurse-to-nurse bullying in the work environment 6. Include videos, research, and articles depicting nurse-to-nurse bullying in the work environment 7. Allow nurses to discuss views of nurse to nurse bullying in the work environment and their experiences 8. Teach how to handle and avoid the proper protocols of nurse to nurse bullying in the work environment 9. Facilitate Q&A for nurses to evaluate the workshop. Timeline: The initial process of choosing which topic to propose commenced in April. Many topics were highlighted but they were reduced to ‘nurse to nurse bullying prevention’ and ‘nurse to patient ratio.’ When I reviewed both of the literature for both topics and project ideas, ‘nurse to nurse bullying’ became the proposal of the project I was interested in. The timeline for reviewing the literature and gathering information took about 45 hours. A total of 30 hours were spent during the first drafting process of proposal. Journals were written in conjunction with the proposal paper. Final approval for implementation will be concluded before the end of Summer 1 semester. Awareness of nurse-to-nurse bullying with ways to cope with it, and ways to eliminate nurse-to-nurse bullying workshops will begin July 2015. A total of 3 meetings will be held once a week outside of the hospital that will be running at up to an hour each. The first meeting will be about raising awareness about nurse-to-nurse bullying with others sharing stories about their experiences. The next meeting will consist of how bullying affects nurses. The last meeting will be regarding ways to cope with bullying using evidence-based practice. Results will not occur within 3 meetings, but it can help make a difference. Activity Completion Date Brain storm 5/13/15 Approval of topic 5/27/15 Review of the literature 5/30/15 Draft proposal 6/3/15 Brainstorm of project 6/10/15 Research regarding management of group meetings 6/12/15 Journal entries 6/1/15 Type proposal 6/15/15 Submit proposal and journals 6/17/15 Begin project 7/1/15 Set up dates and times and a place for the group meetings/ workshops 7/1/15 Make nurses on the floor aware of group meetings/ workshops regarding nurse bullying 7/1/15 Have first meeting regarding nurse bullying. Must make the nurses aware of bullying. Review how bullying affects nurses. Nurses may also vent about experiences regarding bullying. 7/7/15 Third meeting will be about how bullying affects nurses. 7/14/15 Third meeting can be ways to deal with nurse bullying. 7/21/15 Write journal entries 7/1/15 Submit journals and paper 7/25/15 References Becher, J., & Visovsky, C. (2012). Horizontal Violence in Nursing. MedSurge Nursing, 21(4), 210-232. Cleary, M., Hunt, G. E., & Horsfall, J. (2010). Identifying and addressing bullying in nursing. Issues in mental health nursing, 31(5), 331-335. Dellasega, C. A. (2009). Bullying among nurses. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 109(1), 52-58. Einarsen, S., Raknes, B. R. I., & Matthiesen, S. B. (2004). Bullying and harassment at work and their relationships to work environment quality: An exploratory study. European journal of work and organizational psychology,4(4), 381-401. Funnell, R., Koutoukidis, G., Lawrence, K., & Tabbner, A. R. (2008). Tabbner's nursing care: Theory and practice. Sydney, N.S.W: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. Hutchinson, M., Wilkes, L., Jackson, D., & Vickers, M. H. (2010). Integrating individual, work group and organizational factors: testing a multidimensional model of bullying in the Workplace. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(2), 173-181. Johnson, S. L., & Rea, R. E. (2009). Workplace bullying: concerns for nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(2), 84-90. Lee, Y., Lee, M., & Bernstein, K. (2013). Effect of workplace bullying and job stress on turnover intention in hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22(2), 77-87.

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